# The Downside of Innumeracy

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## Podcast Transcript

Over the past a number of centuries, there was a concerted effort to lift literacy charges around the globe.

For probably the most half, though there may be nonetheless work to be carried out, we’ve carried out a fairly good job. The overwhelming majority of individuals on the planet know how you can learn and write.

Whereas literacy has improved, regardless of our world changing into ever extra depending on know-how, total mathematical literacy has not improved.

Study extra about numeracy, or mathematical literacy, on this episode of The whole lot In every single place Each day.

Within the Nineteen Eighties, the quick meals chain A&W was competing with the a lot bigger quick meals chain McDonald’s.

Some of the standard McDonald’s hamburgers was, each then and now, the quarter pounder.

A&W thought they got here up with a fantastic thought to compete with the McDonald’s quarter pounder. They launched a hamburger with a third-pound hamburger patty as an alternative of a quarter-pound patty for a similar value, they usually beat the quarter-pounder in blind style checks.

A&W thought they’d a winner on their fingers.

Nonetheless, the A&W third-pound burger wasn’t the success that they’d hoped.

A&W carried out buyer surveys to seek out out why folks didn’t like the brand new burger. The proprietor of A&W, Alfred Taubman, wrote about what they present in his e book *Threshold Resistance*.

*Greater than half of the individuals within the Yankelovich focus teams questioned the worth of our burger. “Why,” they requested, “ought to we pay the identical quantity for a 3rd of a pound of meat as we do for a quarter-pound of meat at McDonald’s? You’re overcharging us.” Actually. Folks thought a 3rd of a pound was lower than 1 / 4 of a pound. In any case, three is lower than 4!*

This case is the poster baby for what has been dubbed innumeracy, the mathematical equal of illiteracy.

Innumeracy isn’t essentially the shortcoming to do fundamental arithmetic or multiplication; fairly, it’s an incapability to know and cause utilizing fundamental mathematical ideas and logic. It doesn’t actually have something to do with how effectively you probably did in math lessons or the best stage of arithmetic you took.

What I need to do on this episode is go over among the greatest errors folks make with fundamental math. A few of these you may need seen earlier than, and a few you is likely to be responsible of your self.

The primary has to do with very giant numbers. Most individuals don’t have an issue with numbers which can be on a human scale. Issues which can be counted within the dozens, lots of, and even 1000’s are numbers that we will grasp. Most of us can intuitively perceive the distinction between one thousand {dollars} and ten thousand {dollars}.

Nonetheless, there are various issues in science or economics the place we encounter numbers within the billions, trillions, and even better. Most individuals don’t even know what septillions, quadrillions, or octillions even are.

Numbers at this scale are tough for folks to understand intuitively.

One useful technique to grasp this scale is to consider it’s how lengthy one million, billion, and trillion seconds are.

A million seconds will move in 12 days. One billion seconds will move in 32 years. One trillion seconds will take 31,688 years.

Scientists and mathematicians have developed a simple technique to specific these numbers utilizing what is called scientific notation. Scientific notation is predicated on ten raised to the ability of one thing. The quantity that it’s raised to, aka the exponent, is simply the variety of zeros.

For instance, a million is 10^{6}, as a million has six zeros. A billion is 10^{9}.

When you needed to precise the variety of people on Earth, it might be 8 x 10^{9}, or 8 occasions a billion, or eight billion.

With this, we will simply specific enormous numbers with out making our eyes bleed, a ton of zeros.

The diameter of the earth in meters is 12.7 x 10^{6}. Or 12.7 million meters, or 12,700 kilometers.

The diameter of the observable universe is 8.8×10^{26} meters. I don’t even know the title of a quantity that huge, and I don’t must comprehend it as a result of it doesn’t matter.

You may also specific extremely small numbers the identical means by making the exponent unfavourable. One hundredth is 10^{-2}. The diameter of an atom is roughly 10^{-10}, or 1/10 of a nanometer.

As helpful as scientific notation is for actually huge and actually small numbers, most individuals don’t perceive it, so you’ll very seldom see it utilized in public discourse.

The lack to conceptualize huge numbers additionally results in issues in terms of statistics and likelihood.

There’s a relationship firm known as eHarmony. They declare that their service makes a match with members each 14 minutes. They phrase it this manner as a result of it makes it appear that you just may solely be 14 minutes away from making a match.

Assuming their quantity is right, it actually doesn’t inform us something as a result of we don’t understand how many individuals are signed up for the eHarmony service.

The latest public quantity I might discover was that there have been 10 million individuals who had been utilizing their service.

With one match each 14 minutes, that might imply that the system solely makes roughly 103 matches per day and about 37,542 per yr….out of a inhabitants of 10,000,000.

So, in a mean yr, solely about 0.4% of the members of eHarmoy will discover a match.

Not almost as thrilling as one each 14 minutes.

One other instance of creating numbers look good is with pharmaceutical merchandise.

Let’s say a sure pharmaceutical product claimed that for those who took their drug, your danger of dying from a sure sort of most cancers can be decreased by 10%. 10% isn’t one thing to sneeze at, in order that appears like a fairly good factor.

Nonetheless, these numbers cited nearly at all times cite relative danger, not absolute danger. That 10% discount doesn’t let you know absolutely the danger earlier than the drug was taken.

If the chances of dying from a selected most cancers is 1/100,000, then even assuming the info on the drug is right, the chances would now be 1/110,000. Miniscule to nonetheless fairly minuscule.

Nearly all pharmaceutical efficacy percentages are reported as relative dangers, however they by no means say that as a result of most individuals will assume that it’s actually absolute dangers.

Talking of odds, I’d wish to suggest a hypothetical sport.

On this sport, we’ll flip a coin. If the coin comes up heads, you give me $1. If it comes up tails, I’ll provide you with 98 cents.

Given the way in which I proposed the sport, you’d be sensible for those who declined to play. You clearly are going to lose in the long term.

But, that sport I proposed is mainly each sport at a on line casino…..besides they often pay a lot lower than 98 cents.

The playing cards, cube, and spinning wheels are designed to obfuscate the truth that the home has an edge. The extra you play, the better the chances are that the home will come out forward.

Casinos will feed this irrationality after they can. For instance, many roulette tables can have a digital show exhibiting what the final a number of numbers and colours to come back up had been.

They make no claims relating to what this data means, however it’s actually encouraging what is called the Gambler’s fallacy. When you see that purple has come up 5 occasions in a row, then certainly, black is due.

In actuality, it doesn’t matter what occurred prior to now. If purple comes up 5 occasions in a row, then the chances of it arising once more are precisely the identical as if black had come up 5 occasions in a row beforehand.

Odds and likelihood come up in much more conditions than in casinos.

Let’s suppose the climate forecast for the weekend requires a 50% likelihood of rain on Saturday and a 50% likelihood of rain on Sunday. What are the chances that it’ll rain over the weekend?

In case you are actually innumerate, you’d say the chances are 100% as a result of 50% and 50% equals 100%, however that is clearly unsuitable.

If every day had been unbiased of one another, the chances of it raining on both of the 2 days can be 75%. That may be the chances of getting not less than one head to come back up on two consecutive coin flips.

Nonetheless, the actual reply is…..we don’t know. The explanation why we don’t know is that the climate isn’t like a coin flip. The percentages of rain on two consecutive days are usually not unbiased of one another.

One storm cloud may move over close to midnight on Sunday morning, during which case the forecast could possibly be for a similar occasion cut up into two days. Or, it could possibly be two separate occasions separated by nearly 48 hours.

One other space the place individuals are confused by likelihood is elections.

Let’s say there are two candidates. Candidate A is polling at 52%, and candidate B is polling at 48%.

Many individuals assume that as a result of the polling outcomes are revealed in percentages, they’re the identical as the chances of profitable. They don’t seem to be.

If the polling is constant and there may be little variance, somebody polling at simply 52% may need an 80 or 90 % likelihood of profitable.

Additionally, when political polling is carried out, it’s at all times given with a margin of error. Most individuals ignore the error margin and take the numbers at face worth. Nonetheless, the errors are there for a cause. If there’s a 3% margin of error and two candidates are inside 3%, then it’s mainly a statistical lifeless warmth.

Threat evaluation can also be an space the place folks don’t assume mathematically. Folks are likely to inflate the danger of dramatic, low-probability occasions which seem on the information and underestimate the dangers of extra most likely but commonplace occasions.

A very good instance of that is the danger evaluation folks have with terrorism. Hundreds if not thousands and thousands of individuals have canceled or modified their journey plans due to the specter of terrorism. But the chances of being a sufferer of a terrorist assault are extraordinarily low, and are dwarfed by many different issues.

One factor that few folks fear about is definitely the one greatest killer of vacationers: car accidents. You’re lots of of occasions extra more likely to be concerned in an car accident than you might be in a terrorist assault.

I’ll finish by noting one thing that many individuals additionally fully misjudge the chances of, coincidences.

A coincidence, by definition, is a low likelihood occasion. Nonetheless, sure coincidences aren’t that inconceivable.

For instance, when you have a gaggle of 25 folks, the chances are higher than 50% that not less than two folks will share the identical birthday. It doesn’t seem to be it as a result of we consider somebody having the identical birthday as us, however with any two folks, it’s extra most likely than not.

Coincidences occur on a regular basis. Predicting any explicit coincidence earlier than it occurs is inconceivable, however declaring one after the actual fact isn’t that huge of a deal as a result of the universe of attainable coincidences is extraordinarily giant.

People like to seek out patterns, so there’s a tendency to attempt to discover explanation why coincidences occurred, even when there wasn’t something that was the trigger. Not accepting coincidences can result in conspiracy theories and pseudoscience, looking for underlying causes to clarify one thing that doesn’t truly require explanations.

Innumeracy isn’t as apparent as illiteracy, however it’s much more prevalent. It isn’t simply one thing that impacts common folks. You possibly can typically see proof of it in information experiences and even in educational analysis papers.

Nearly forty years after A&W failed with the launch of their ? pound burger, they reintroduced it in 2021. This time, nevertheless, they modified their advertising and marketing. As an alternative of calling it the ? pound burger, they modified the title to the three/9 pound burger.

The whole lot In every single place Each day is an Airwave Media Podcast.

The manager producer is Darcy Adams.

The affiliate producers are Thor Thomsen and Peter Bennett.

Right now’s evaluation comes from listener *Dave from Kenai AK*, over at Apple Podcasts in the USA. He writes:

*Simply among the finest podcasts I’ve discovered*

*I’ve listened to each episode, and they’re ALL GREAT! It’s uncommon to discover a podcast the place each episode is fascinating, however that is that podcast. Thanks for the nice present!*

Thanks, Dave! And welcome to the completionist membership! I’ve been to part of your neck of the woods. I’ve been to the Kenai Peninsula and Kenai Fjords Nationwide Park, however by no means all the way in which to the city of Kenai itself. Glad to know I’ve folks listening within the forty ninth state.

Keep in mind, for those who depart a evaluation or ship me a boostagram, you can also have it learn the present.